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PolarAxis

The PolarAxis is an axis for data given in polar coordinates, i.e a radius and an angle. It is currently an experimental feature, meaning that some functionality might be missing or broken, and that the PolarAxis is (more) open to breaking changes.

Creating a PolarAxis

Creating a PolarAxis works the same way as creating an Axis.

julia
using CairoMakie

f = Figure()

ax = PolarAxis(f[1, 1], title = "Title")

f

Plotting into an PolarAxis

Like with an Axis you can use mutating 2D plot functions directly on a PolarAxis. The input arguments of the plot functions will then be interpreted in polar coordinates, i.e. as an angle (in radians) and a radius. The order of a arguments can be changed with ax.theta_as_x.

julia
using CairoMakie
f = Figure(size = (800, 400))

ax = PolarAxis(f[1, 1], title = "Theta as x")
lineobject = lines!(ax, 0..2pi, sin, color = :red)

ax = PolarAxis(f[1, 2], title = "R as x", theta_as_x = false)
scatobject = scatter!(range(0, 10, length=100), cos, color = :orange)

f

PolarAxis Limits

By default the PolarAxis will assume po.rlimits[] = (0.0, nothing) and po.thetalimits[] = (0.0, 2pi), showing a full circle. You can adjust these limits to show different cut-outs of the PolarAxis. For example, we can limit thetalimits to a smaller range to generate a circle sector and further limit rmin through rlimits to cut out the center to an arc.

julia
using CairoMakie
f = Figure(size = (600, 600))

ax = PolarAxis(f[1, 1], title = "Default")
lines!(ax, range(0, 8pi, length=300), range(0, 10, length=300))
ax = PolarAxis(f[1, 2], title = "thetalimits", thetalimits = (-pi/6, pi/6))
lines!(ax, range(0, 8pi, length=300), range(0, 10, length=300))

ax = PolarAxis(f[2, 1], title = "rlimits", rlimits = (5, 10))
lines!(ax, range(0, 8pi, length=300), range(0, 10, length=300))
ax = PolarAxis(f[2, 2], title = "both")
lines!(ax, range(0, 8pi, length=300), range(0, 10, length=300))
thetalims!(ax, -pi/6, pi/6)
rlims!(ax, 5, 10)

f

You can make further adjustments to the orientation of the PolarAxis by adjusting ax.theta_0 and ax.direction. These adjust how angles are interpreted by the polar transform following the formula output_angle = direction * (input_angle + theta_0).

julia
using CairoMakie
f = Figure()

ax = PolarAxis(f[1, 1], title = "Reoriented Axis", theta_0 = -pi/2, direction = -1)
lines!(ax, range(0, 8pi, length=300), range(0, 10, length=300))
thetalims!(ax, -pi/6, pi/6)
rlims!(ax, 5, 10)

f

Note that by default translations in adjustments of rmin and thetalimits are blocked. These can be unblocked by calling autolimits!(ax[, true]) which also tells the PolarAxis to derive r- and thetalimits freely from data, or by setting ax.fixrmin[] = false and ax.thetazoomlock[] = false.

Plot type compatability

Not every plot type is compatible with the polar transform. For example image is not as it expects to be drawn on a rectangle. heatmap works to a degree in CairoMakie, but not GLMakie due to differences in the backend implementation. surface can be used as a replacement for image as it generates a triangle mesh. To avoid having the surface plot extend in z-direction and thus messing with render order it is recommended to pass the color-data through the color attribute and use a matrix of zeros for the z-data. As a replacement for heatmap you can use voronoiplot, which generates cells of arbitrary shape around points given to it. Here you will generally need to set rlims!(ax, rmax) yourself.

julia
using CairoMakie
f = Figure(size = (800, 500))

ax = PolarAxis(f[1, 1], title = "Surface")
rs = 0:10
phis = range(0, 2pi, 37)
cs = [r+cos(4phi) for phi in phis, r in rs]
p = surface!(ax, 0..2pi, 0..10, zeros(size(cs)), color = cs, shading = NoShading, colormap = :coolwarm)
ax.gridz[] = 100
tightlimits!(ax) # surface plots include padding by default
Colorbar(f[2, 1], p, vertical = false, flipaxis = false)

ax = PolarAxis(f[1, 2], title = "Voronoi")
rs = 1:10
phis = range(0, 2pi, 37)[1:36]
cs = [r+cos(4phi) for phi in phis, r in rs]
p = voronoiplot!(ax, phis, rs, cs, show_generators = false, strokewidth = 0)
rlims!(ax, 0.0, 10.5)
Colorbar(f[2, 2], p, vertical = false, flipaxis = false)

f

Note that in order to see the grid we need to adjust its depth with ax.gridz[] = 100 (higher z means lower depth). The hard limits for ax.gridz are (-10_000, 10_000) with 9000 being a soft limit where axis components may order incorrectly.

Hiding spines and decorations

For a PolarAxis we interpret the outer ring limiting the plotting area as the axis spine. You can manipulate it with the spine... attributes.

julia
using CairoMakie
f = Figure(size = (800, 400))
ax1 = PolarAxis(f[1, 1], title = "No spine", spinevisible = false)
scatterlines!(ax1, range(0, 1, length=100), range(0, 10pi, length=100), color = 1:100)

ax2 = PolarAxis(f[1, 2], title = "Modified spine")
ax2.spinecolor[] = :red
ax2.spinestyle[] = :dash
ax2.spinewidth[] = 5
scatterlines!(ax2, range(0, 1, length=100), range(0, 10pi, length=100), color = 1:100)

f

Decorations such as grid lines and tick labels can be adjusted through attributes in much the same way.

julia
using CairoMakie
f = Figure(size = (600, 600), backgroundcolor = :black)
ax = PolarAxis(
    f[1, 1],
    backgroundcolor = :black,
    # r minor grid
    rminorgridvisible = true, rminorgridcolor = :red,
    rminorgridwidth = 1.0, rminorgridstyle = :dash,
    # theta minor grid
    thetaminorgridvisible = true, thetaminorgridcolor = :lightblue,
    thetaminorgridwidth = 1.0, thetaminorgridstyle = :dash,
    # major grid
    rgridwidth = 2, rgridcolor = :red,
    thetagridwidth = 2, thetagridcolor = :lightblue,
    # r labels
    rticklabelsize = 18, rticklabelcolor = :red,
    rticklabelstrokewidth = 1.0, rticklabelstrokecolor = :white,
    # theta labels
    thetaticklabelsize = 18, thetaticklabelcolor = :lightblue
)

f

We can also hide the spine after creation with hidespines!(ax). And, hide the ticklabels, grid, and/or minorgrid with hidedecorations!, hiderdecorations, and hidethetadecorations!.

julia
using CairoMakie
fig = Figure()
fullaxis(figpos, title) = PolarAxis(figpos;
                                    title,
                                    thetaminorgridvisible=true,
                                    rminorgridvisible=true,
                                    rticklabelrotation=deg2rad(-90),
                                    rticklabelsize=12,
                                    )
ax1 = fullaxis(fig[1, 1][1, 1], "all decorations")
ax2 = fullaxis(fig[1, 1][1, 2], "hide spine")
hidespines!(ax2)
ax3 = fullaxis(fig[2, 1][1, 1], "hide r decorations")
hiderdecorations!(ax3)
ax4 = fullaxis(fig[2, 1][1, 2], "hide theta decorations")
hidethetadecorations!(ax4)
ax5 = fullaxis(fig[2, 1][1, 3], "hide all decorations")
hidedecorations!(ax5)
fig

Interactivity

The PolarAxis currently implements zooming, translation and resetting. Zooming is implemented via scrolling, with ax.rzoomkey = Keyboard.r restricting zooming to the radial direction and ax.thetazoomkey = Keyboard.t restring to angular zooming. You can block zooming in the r-direction by setting ax.rzoomlock = true and ax.thetazoomlock = true for theta direction. Furthermore you can disable zooming from changing just rmin with ax.fixrmin = true and adjust its speed with ax.zoomspeed = 0.1.

Translations are implemented with mouse drag. By default radial translations use ax.r_translation_button = Mouse.right and angular translations also use ax.theta_translation_button = Mouse.right. If ax.fixrmin = true translation in the r direction are not allowed. If you want to disable one of these interaction you can set corresponding button to false.

There is also an interaction for rotating the whole axis using ax.axis_rotation_button = Keyboard.left_control & Mouse.right and resetting the axis view uses ax.reset_button = Keyboard.left_control & Mouse.left, matching Axis. You can adjust whether this resets the rotation of the axis with ax.reset_axis_orientation = false.

Note that PolarAxis currently does not implement the interaction interface used by Axis.

Other Notes

Plotting outside a PolarAxis

Currently there are two poly plots outside the area of the PolarAxis which clip the content to the relevant area. If you want to draw outside the clip limiting the polar axis but still within it's scene area, you need to translate those plots to a z range between 9000 and 10_000 or disable clipping via the clip attribute.

For reference, the z values used by PolarAxis are po.griddepth[] = 8999 for grid lines, 9000 for the clip polygons, 9001 for spines and 9002 for tick labels.

Radial Offset

If you have a plot with rlimits far away from 0 you will end up with a lot of empty space in the PolarAxis. Consider for example:

julia
using CairoMakie
fig = Figure()
ax = PolarAxis(fig[1, 1], thetalimits = (0, pi))
lines!(ax, range(0, pi, length=100), 10 .+ sin.(0.3 .* (1:100)))
fig

In this case you may want to offset the r-direction to make more of your data visible. This can be done by setting ax.radius_at_origin which translates radii as r_out = r_in - radius_at_origin.

julia
using CairoMakie
fig = Figure()
ax = PolarAxis(fig[1, 1], thetalimits = (0, pi), radius_at_origin = 8)
lines!(ax, range(0, pi, length=100), 10 .+ sin.(0.3 .* (1:100)))
fig

This can also be used to show a plot with negative radii:

julia
using CairoMakie
fig = Figure()
ax = PolarAxis(fig[1, 1], thetalimits = (0, pi), radius_at_origin = -12)
lines!(ax, range(0, pi, length=100), sin.(0.3 .* (1:100)) .- 10)
fig

Note however that translating radii results in some level of distortion:

julia
using CairoMakie
phis = range(pi/4, 9pi/4, length=201)
rs = 1.0 ./ sin.(range(pi/4, 3pi/4, length=51)[1:end-1])
rs = vcat(rs, rs, rs, rs, rs[1])

fig = Figure(size = (900, 300))
ax1 = PolarAxis(fig[1, 1], radius_at_origin = -2,  title = "radius_at_origin = -2")
ax2 = PolarAxis(fig[1, 2], radius_at_origin = 0,   title = "radius_at_origin = 0")
ax3 = PolarAxis(fig[1, 3], radius_at_origin = 0.5, title = "radius_at_origin = 0.5")
for ax in (ax1, ax2, ax3)
    lines!(ax, phis, rs .- 2, color = :red, linewidth = 4)
    lines!(ax, phis, rs, color = :black, linewidth = 4)
    lines!(ax, phis, rs .+ 0.5, color = :blue, linewidth = 4)
end
fig

Radial clipping

By default radii r_out = r_in - radius_at_origin < 0 are clipped by the Polar transform. This can be disabled by setting ax.clip_r = false. With that setting r_out < 0 will pass through the polar transform as is, resulting in a coordinate at (|rout|,θpi).

julia
using CairoMakie
fig = Figure(size = (600, 300))
ax1 = PolarAxis(fig[1, 1], radius_at_origin = 0.0, clip_r = true, title = "clip_r = true")
ax2 = PolarAxis(fig[1, 2], radius_at_origin = 0.0, clip_r = false, title = "clip_r = false")
for ax in (ax1, ax2)
    lines!(ax, 0..2pi, phi -> cos(2phi) - 0.5, color = :red, linewidth = 4)
    lines!(ax, 0..2pi, phi -> sin(2phi), color = :black, linewidth = 4)
end
fig

Attributes

alignmode

Defaults to Inside()

The alignment of the scene in its suggested bounding box.

axis_rotation_button

Defaults to Keyboard.left_control & Mouse.right

Sets the button for rotating the PolarAxis as a whole. This replaces theta translation when triggered and must include a mouse button.

backgroundcolor

Defaults to inherit(scene, :backgroundcolor, :white)

The background color of the axis.

clip

Defaults to true

Controls whether to activate the nonlinear clip feature. Note that this should not be used when the background is ultimately transparent.

clip_r

Defaults to true

Controls whether r < 0 (after applying radius_at_origin) gets clipped (true) or not (false).

clipcolor

Defaults to automatic

Sets the color of the clip polygon. Mainly for debug purposes.

dim1_conversion

Defaults to nothing

Global state for the x dimension conversion.

dim2_conversion

Defaults to nothing

Global state for the y dimension conversion.

direction

Defaults to 1

The direction of rotation. Can be -1 (clockwise) or 1 (counterclockwise).

fixrmin

Defaults to true

Controls whether rmin remains fixed during zooming and translation. (The latter will be turned off by setting this to true.)

gridz

Defaults to -100

Sets the z value of grid lines. To place the grid above plots set this to a value between 1 and 8999.

halign

Defaults to :center

The horizontal alignment of the scene in its suggested bounding box.

height

Defaults to nothing

The height setting of the scene.

normalize_theta_ticks

Defaults to true

Sets whether shown theta ticks get normalized to a -2pi to 2pi range. If not, the limits such as (2pi, 4pi) will be shown as that range.

r_translation_button

Defaults to Mouse.right

Sets the mouse button for translating the plot in r-direction.

radius_at_origin

Defaults to automatic

Sets the radius at the origin of the PolarAxis such that r_out = r_in - radius_at_origin. Can be set to automatic to match rmin. Note that this will affect the shape of plotted objects.

rautolimitmargin

Defaults to (0.05, 0.05)

The relative margins added to the autolimits in r direction.

reset_axis_orientation

Defaults to false

Sets whether the axis orientation (changed with the axis_rotation_button) gets reset when resetting the axis. If set to false only the limits will reset.

reset_button

Defaults to Keyboard.left_control & Mouse.left

Sets the button or button combination for resetting the axis view. (This should be compatible with ispressed.)

rgridcolor

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :xgridcolor), (:black, 0.5))

The color of the r grid.

rgridstyle

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :xgridstyle), nothing)

The linestyle of the r grid.

rgridvisible

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :xgridvisible), true)

Controls if the r grid is visible.

rgridwidth

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :xgridwidth), 1)

The linewidth of the r grid.

rlimits

Defaults to (:origin, nothing)

The radial limits of the PolarAxis.

rminorgridcolor

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :xminorgridcolor), (:black, 0.2))

The color of the r minor grid.

rminorgridstyle

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :xminorgridstyle), nothing)

The linestyle of the r minor grid.

rminorgridvisible

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :xminorgridvisible), false)

Controls if the r minor grid is visible.

rminorgridwidth

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :xminorgridwidth), 1)

The linewidth of the r minor grid.

rminorticks

Defaults to IntervalsBetween(2)

The specifier for the minor r ticks.

rtickangle

Defaults to automatic

The angle in radians along which the r ticks are printed.

rtickformat

Defaults to Makie.automatic

The formatter for the r ticks

rticklabelcolor

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :xticklabelcolor), inherit(scene, :textcolor, :black))

The color of the r tick labels.

rticklabelfont

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :xticklabelfont), inherit(scene, :font, Makie.defaultfont()))

The font of the r tick labels.

rticklabelpad

Defaults to 4.0

Padding of the r ticks label.

rticklabelrotation

Defaults to automatic

Sets the rotation of r tick labels.

Options:

  • :radial rotates labels based on the angle they appear at

  • :horizontal keeps labels at a horizontal orientation

  • :aligned rotates labels based on the angle they appear at but keeps them up-right and close to horizontal

  • automatic uses :horizontal when theta limits span >1.9pi and :aligned otherwise

  • ::Real sets the label rotation to a specific value

rticklabelsize

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :xticklabelsize), 16)

The fontsize of the r tick labels.

rticklabelstrokecolor

Defaults to automatic

The color of the outline of r ticks. By default this uses the background color.

rticklabelstrokewidth

Defaults to 0.0

The width of the outline of r ticks. Setting this to 0 will remove the outline.

rticklabelsvisible

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :xticklabelsvisible), true)

Controls if the r ticks are visible.

rticks

Defaults to LinearTicks(4)

The specifier for the radial (r) ticks, similar to xticks for a normal Axis.

rzoomkey

Defaults to Keyboard.r

Sets the key used to restrict zooming to the r-direction. Can be set to true to always restrict zooming or false to disable the interaction.

rzoomlock

Defaults to false

Controls whether adjusting the rlimits through interactive zooming is blocked.

sample_density

Defaults to 120

The density at which curved lines are sampled. (grid lines, spine lines, clip)

spinecolor

Defaults to :black

The color of the spine.

spinestyle

Defaults to nothing

The linestyle of the spine.

spinevisible

Defaults to true

Controls whether the spine is visible.

spinewidth

Defaults to 2

The width of the spine.

tellheight

Defaults to true

Controls if the parent layout can adjust to this element's height

tellwidth

Defaults to true

Controls if the parent layout can adjust to this element's width

theta_0

Defaults to 0.0

The angular offset for (1, 0) in the PolarAxis. This rotates the axis.

theta_as_x

Defaults to true

Controls the argument order of the Polar transform. If theta_as_x = true it is (θ, r), otherwise (r, θ).

theta_translation_button

Defaults to Mouse.right

Sets the mouse button for translating the plot in theta-direction. Note that this can be the same as radial_translation_button.

thetaautolimitmargin

Defaults to (0.05, 0.05)

The relative margins added to the autolimits in theta direction.

thetagridcolor

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :ygridcolor), (:black, 0.5))

The color of the theta grid.

thetagridstyle

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :ygridstyle), nothing)

The linestyle of the theta grid.

thetagridvisible

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :ygridvisible), true)

Controls if the theta grid is visible.

thetagridwidth

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :ygridwidth), 1)

The linewidth of the theta grid.

thetalimits

Defaults to (0.0, 2pi)

The angle limits of the PolarAxis. (0.0, 2pi) results a full circle. (nothing, nothing) results in limits picked based on plot limits.

thetaminorgridcolor

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :yminorgridcolor), (:black, 0.2))

The color of the theta minor grid.

thetaminorgridstyle

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :yminorgridstyle), nothing)

The linestyle of the theta minor grid.

thetaminorgridvisible

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :yminorgridvisible), false)

Controls if the theta minor grid is visible.

thetaminorgridwidth

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :yminorgridwidth), 1)

The linewidth of the theta minor grid.

thetaminorticks

Defaults to IntervalsBetween(2)

The specifier for the minor theta ticks.

thetatickformat

Defaults to Makie.automatic

The formatter for the theta ticks.

thetaticklabelcolor

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :yticklabelcolor), inherit(scene, :textcolor, :black))

The color of the theta tick labels.

thetaticklabelfont

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :yticklabelfont), inherit(scene, :font, Makie.defaultfont()))

The font of the theta tick labels.

thetaticklabelpad

Defaults to 4.0

Padding of the theta ticks label.

thetaticklabelsize

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :yticklabelsize), 16)

The fontsize of the theta tick labels.

thetaticklabelstrokecolor

Defaults to automatic

The color of the outline of theta ticks. By default this uses the background color.

thetaticklabelstrokewidth

Defaults to 0.0

The width of the outline of theta ticks. Setting this to 0 will remove the outline.

thetaticklabelsvisible

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :yticklabelsvisible), true)

Controls if the theta ticks are visible.

thetaticks

Defaults to AngularTicks(180 / pi, "°")

The specifier for the angular (theta) ticks, similar to yticks for a normal Axis.

thetazoomkey

Defaults to Keyboard.t

Sets the key used to restrict zooming to the theta-direction. Can be set to true to always restrict zooming or false to disable the interaction.

thetazoomlock

Defaults to true

Controls whether adjusting the thetalimits through interactive zooming is blocked.

title

Defaults to ""

The title of the plot

titlealign

Defaults to :center

The alignment of the title. Can be any of :center, :left, or :right.

titlecolor

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :titlecolor), inherit(scene, :textcolor, :black))

The color of the title.

titlefont

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :titlefont), inherit(scene, :font, Makie.defaultfont()))

The font of the title.

titlegap

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :titlesize), map((x->begin x / 2 end), inherit(scene, :fontsize, 16)))

The gap between the title and the top of the axis

titlesize

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :titlesize), map((x->begin 1.2x end), inherit(scene, :fontsize, 16)))

The fontsize of the title.

titlevisible

Defaults to inherit(scene, (:Axis, :titlevisible), true)

Controls if the title is visible.

valign

Defaults to :center

The vertical alignment of the scene in its suggested bounding box.

width

Defaults to nothing

The width setting of the scene.

zoomspeed

Defaults to 0.1

Sets the speed of scroll based zooming. Setting this to 0 effectively disables zooming.