text(positions; text, kwargs...)
text(x, y; text, kwargs...)
text(x, y, z; text, kwargs...)

Plots one or multiple texts passed via the text keyword. Text uses the PointBased conversion trait.


Specific to Text

  • color=theme(scene, :textcolor) sets the color of the text. One can set one color per glyph by passing a Vector{<:Colorant}, or one colorant for the whole text. If color is a vector of numbers, the colormap args are used to map the numbers to colors.

  • text specifies one piece of text or a vector of texts to show, where the number has to match the number of positions given. Makie supports String which is used for all normal text and LaTeXString which layouts mathematical expressions using MathTeXEngine.jl.

  • align::Tuple{Union{Symbol, Real}, Union{Symbol, Real}} = (:left, :bottom) sets the alignment of the string w.r.t. position. Uses :left, :center, :right, :top, :bottom, :baseline or fractions.

  • font::Union{String, Vector{String}} = :regular sets the font for the string or each character.

  • justification::Union{Real, Symbol} = automatic sets the alignment of text w.r.t its bounding box. Can be :left, :center, :right or a fraction. Will default to the horizontal alignment in align.

  • rotation::Union{Real, Quaternion} rotates text around the given position.

  • fontsize::Union{Real, Vec2f} sets the size of each character.

  • markerspace::Symbol = :pixel sets the space in which fontsize acts. See Makie.spaces() for possible inputs.

  • strokewidth::Real = 0 sets the width of the outline around a marker.

  • strokecolor::Union{Symbol, <:Colorant} = :black sets the color of the outline around a marker.

  • glowwidth::Real = 0 sets the size of a glow effect around the marker.

  • glowcolor::Union{Symbol, <:Colorant} = (:black, 0) sets the color of the glow effect.

  • word_wrap_width::Real = -1 specifies a linewidth limit for text. If a word overflows this limit, a newline is inserted before it. Negative numbers disable word wrapping.

  • transform_marker::Bool = false controls whether the model matrix (without translation) applies to the glyph itself, rather than just the positions. (If this is true, scale! and rotate! will affect the text glyphs.)

Color attributes

  • colormap::Union{Symbol, Vector{<:Colorant}} = :viridis sets the colormap that is sampled for numeric colors. PlotUtils.cgrad(...), Makie.Reverse(any_colormap) can be used as well, or any symbol from ColorBrewer or PlotUtils. To see all available color gradients, you can call Makie.available_gradients().

  • colorscale::Function = identity color transform function. Can be any function, but only works well together with Colorbar for identity, log, log2, log10, sqrt, logit, Makie.pseudolog10 and Makie.Symlog10.

  • colorrange::Tuple{<:Real, <:Real} sets the values representing the start and end points of colormap.

  • nan_color::Union{Symbol, <:Colorant} = RGBAf(0,0,0,0) sets a replacement color for color = NaN.

  • lowclip::Union{Nothing, Symbol, <:Colorant} = nothing sets a color for any value below the colorrange.

  • highclip::Union{Nothing, Symbol, <:Colorant} = nothing sets a color for any value above the colorrange.

  • alpha = 1.0 sets the alpha value of the colormap or color attribute. Multiple alphas like in plot(alpha=0.2, color=(:red, 0.5), will get multiplied.

Generic attributes

  • visible::Bool = true sets whether the plot will be rendered or not.

  • overdraw::Bool = false sets whether the plot will draw over other plots. This specifically means ignoring depth checks in GL backends.

  • transparency::Bool = false adjusts how the plot deals with transparency. In GLMakie transparency = true results in using Order Independent Transparency.

  • fxaa::Bool = true adjusts whether the plot is rendered with fxaa (anti-aliasing).

  • inspectable::Bool = true sets whether this plot should be seen by DataInspector.

  • depth_shift::Float32 = 0f0 adjusts the depth value of a plot after all other transformations, i.e. in clip space, where 0 <= depth <= 1. This only applies to GLMakie and WGLMakie and can be used to adjust render order (like a tunable overdraw).

  • model::Makie.Mat4f sets a model matrix for the plot. This replaces adjustments made with translate!, rotate! and scale!.

  • space::Symbol = :data sets the transformation space for box encompassing the volume plot. See Makie.spaces() for possible inputs.

Marker space pixel

By default, text is drawn with markerspace = :pixel, which means that the text size is interpreted in pixel space. (The space of the text position is determined by the space attribute instead.)

The boundingbox of text with markerspace = :pixel will include every data point or every text anchor point but not the text itself, because its extent depends on the current projection of the axis it is in. This also means that autolimits! might cut off your text, because the glyphs don't have a meaningful size in data coordinates (the size is independent of zoom level), and you have to take some care to manually place the text or set data limits such that it is fully visible.

You can either plot one string with one position, or a vector of strings with a vector of positions.

using CairoMakie

f = Figure()

Axis(f[1, 1], aspect = DataAspect(), backgroundcolor = :gray50)

scatter!(Point2f(0, 0))
text!(0, 0, text = "center", align = (:center, :center))

circlepoints = [(cos(a), sin(a)) for a in LinRange(0, 2pi, 16)[1:end-1]]
    text = "this is point " .* string.(1:15),
    rotation = LinRange(0, 2pi, 16)[1:end-1],
    align = (:right, :baseline),
    color = cgrad(:Spectral)[LinRange(0, 1, 15)]


Marker space data

For text whose dimensions are meaningful in data space, set markerspace = :data. This means that the boundingbox of the text in data coordinates will include every glyph.

using CairoMakie

f = Figure()
LScene(f[1, 1])

    [Point3f(0, 0, i/2) for i in 1:7],
    text = fill("Makie", 7),
    rotation = [i / 7 * 1.5pi for i in 1:7],
    color = [cgrad(:viridis)[x] for x in LinRange(0, 1, 7)],
    align = (:left, :baseline),
    fontsize = 1,
    markerspace = :data



Text can be aligned with the horizontal alignments :left, :center, :right and the vertical alignments :bottom, :baseline, :center, :top.

using CairoMakie

aligns = [(h, v) for v in [:bottom, :baseline, :center, :top]
                 for h in [:left, :center, :right]]
x = repeat(1:3, 4)
y = repeat(1:4, inner = 3)
scatter(x, y)
text!(x, y, text = string.(aligns), align = aligns)


By default, justification of multiline text follows alignment. Text that is left aligned is also left justified. You can override this with the justification attribute.

using CairoMakie

scene = Scene(camera = campixel!, size = (800, 800))

points = [Point(x, y) .* 200 for x in 1:3 for y in 1:3]
scatter!(scene, points, marker = :circle, markersize = 10px)

symbols = (:left, :center, :right)

for ((justification, halign), point) in zip(Iterators.product(symbols, symbols), points)

    t = text!(scene,
        text = "a\nshort\nparagraph",
        color = (:black, 0.5),
        align = (halign, :center),
        justification = justification)

    bb = boundingbox(t)
    wireframe!(scene, bb, color = (:red, 0.2))

for (p, al) in zip(points[3:3:end], (:left, :center, :right))
    text!(scene, p .+ (0, 80), text = "align :" * string(al),
        align = (:center, :baseline))

for (p, al) in zip(points[7:9], (:left, :center, :right))
    text!(scene, p .+ (80, 0), text = "justification\n:" * string(al),
        align = (:center, :top), rotation = pi/2)



The offset attribute can be used to shift text away from its position. This is especially useful with space = :pixel, for example to place text together with barplots. You can specify the end of the barplots in data coordinates, and then offset the text a little bit to the left.

using CairoMakie

f = Figure()

horsepower = [52, 78, 80, 112, 140]
cars = ["Kia", "Mini", "Honda", "Mercedes", "Ferrari"]

ax = Axis(f[1, 1], xlabel = "horse power")
tightlimits!(ax, Left())

barplot!(horsepower, direction = :x)
text!(Point.(horsepower, 1:5), text = cars, align = (:right, :center),
    offset = (-20, 0), color = :white)


Relative space

The default setting of text is space = :data, which means the final position depends on the axis limits and scaling. However, it can be useful to place text relative to the axis itself, independent of scaling. With space = :relative, the position (0, 0) refers to the lower left corner and (1, 1) the upper right of the Scene that a plot object is in (for an Axis that is equivalent to the plotting area, which is implemented using a Scene).

A common scenario is to place labels within axes:

using CairoMakie

f = Figure()

ax1 = Axis(f[1, 1], limits = (1, 2, 3, 4))
ax2 = Axis(f[1, 2], width = 300, limits = (5, 6, 7, 8))
ax3 = Axis(f[2, 1:2], limits = (9, 10, 11, 12))

for (ax, label) in zip([ax1, ax2, ax3], ["A", "B", "C"])
        ax, 0, 1,
        text = label,
        font = :bold,
        align = (:left, :top),
        offset = (4, -2),
        space = :relative,
        fontsize = 24



Makie can render LaTeX strings from the LaTeXStrings.jl package using MathTeXEngine.jl.

using CairoMakie

lines(0.5..20, x -> sin(x) / sqrt(x), color = :black)
text!(7, 0.38, text = L"\frac{\sin(x)}{\sqrt{x}}", color = :black)

You can also pass L-strings to many objects that use text, for example as labels in the legend.

using CairoMakie

f = Figure()
ax = Axis(f[1, 1])

lines!(0..10, x -> sin(3x) / (cos(x) + 2),
    label = L"\frac{\sin(3x)}{\cos(x) + 2}")
lines!(0..10, x -> sin(x^2) / (cos(sqrt(x)) + 2),
    label = L"\frac{\sin(x^2)}{\cos(\sqrt{x}) + 2}")

Legend(f[1, 2], ax)


Rich text

With rich text, you can conveniently plot text whose parts have different colors or fonts, and you can position sections as subscripts and superscripts. You can create such rich text objects using the functions rich, superscript and subscript, all of which create RichText objects.

Each of these functions takes a variable number of arguments, each of which can be a String or RichText. Each can also take keyword arguments such as color or font, to set these attributes for the given part. The top-level settings for font, color, etc. are taken from the text attributes as usual.

using CairoMakie

f = Figure(fontsize = 30)
    f[1, 1],
        "H", subscript("2"), "O is the formula for ",
        rich("water", color = :cornflowerblue, font = :italic)

rainbow = cgrad(:rainbow, length(str), categorical = true)
fontsizes = 30 .+ 10 .* sin.(range(0, 3pi, length = length(str)))

rainbow_chars = map(enumerate(str)) do (i, c)
    rich("$c", color = rainbow[i], fontsize = fontsizes[i])

Label(f[2, 1], rich(rainbow_chars...), font = :bold)


Tweaking offsets

Sometimes, when using regular and italic fonts next to each other, the gaps between glyphs are too narrow or too wide. You can use the offset value for rich text to shift glyphs by an amount proportional to the fontsize.

using CairoMakie

f = Figure(fontsize = 30)
    f[1, 1],
        superscript("Regular without x offset", font = :regular),
        font = :italic

    f[2, 1],
        superscript("Regular with x offset", font = :regular, offset = (0.15, 0)),
        font = :italic